The Campaigns of Joan of Arc, according to the Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet
The work by Enguerrand de Monstrelet, governor of Cambrai, covers the years 1400 to at least 1444. The section given below deals with events in France from 1428 to 1430, focusing on the rise of Joan of Arc, and ending with her capture. Chapters not dealing with military events have been omitted. For more information on Joan of Arc, please see Kelly DeVries' article Teenagers at War During the Middle Ages.
CHAPTER 56: THE ENGLISH,
MARCHING TO REINFORCE THE SIEGE OF ORLEANS, ARE MET AND ATTACKED BY THE FRENCH.
The regent duke of Bedford, while at Paris, had collected about five hundred carts and cars from the borders of Normandy and from the Isle de France, which different merchants were ordered to load with provision, stores and other things, and to have conveyed to the English army before Orleans. When all was ready, the command of this convoy was given to sir John Fascot grand-master of the duke's household, and with hint were, the provost of Paris, named Simon Morbier, the bastard de Thiam knight, bailiff of Senlis, the provost of Melun, and several other officers from the Isle de France and that neighbourhood, accompanied by sixteen hundred combatants and a thousand common men. This armament left Paris on Ash Wednesday, under the command of sir John Fastolfe, who conducted the convoy and his forces in good order by short marches, until he came near the village of Rouvroy in Beauce, situated between Genville and Orleans.
French captains, leaving long before heard of his coming, were there assembled
to wait his arrival, namely, Charles duke of Bourbon, the two marshals of
France, the constable of Scotland and his son, the lords de la Tour, de
Chauvigny, de Graville, Sir William d'Albreth, the viscount de Thouars, the
bastard d’Orleans, sir James de Chabannes, the lord de la Fayette, Poton de
Saintrailles, Estienne de Vignolles, surnamed La Hire, Sir Theolde de Valperghe,
and others of the nobility, having with them from three to four thousand men.
The English had been informed of this force being assembled from
different garrisons which they had in those parts, and lost no time in forming a
square with their carts and carriages, leaving but two openings, in which square
they enclosed themselves, posting their archers as guards to these entrances,
and the men at arms hard by to support them.
On the strongest side of this enclosure were the merchants, pages,
carters, and those incapable of defending themselves, with all their horses.
The English thus situated,
waited two hours for the coming of the enemy, who at length arrived with much
noise, and drew up out of bowshot in front of the enclosure. It seemed to them,
that considering their superior numbers, the state of the convoy, and that there
were not more than six hundred real Englishmen, the rest being composed of all
nations, they could not escape falling into their hands, and must be speedily
conquered. Others, however, had their fears of the contrary happening, for the
French captains did not well agree together as to their mode of fighting, for
the Scots would combat on foot, and the others on horseback. The lord Charles de
Bourbon was there knighted by the lord de la Fayette, with some others. In the
mean time, the constable of Scotland, his son and all their men, dismounted and
advanced to attack their adversaries, by whom they were received with great
English archers, under shelter of the carriages, shot so well and stiffly that
all on horseback within their reach were glad to retreat with their men-at-arms.
The constable of Scotland and his men attacked one of the entrances of the
enclosure, but they were soon slain on the spot. Among the killed were, Sir John
Stuart, his son, sir William d'Albreth, lord d'Orval, the lord de Chateaubrun,
the lord de Mont Pipel, sir John Larigot, the lord de Verduisant, the lord de
Divray, the lord de la Greve, sir Anthony de Puilly and others, to the amount of
six score gentlemen and five hundred common men, the greater part of whom were
Scotsmen. The other French captains retreated with their men to the places
whence they had come.
English, on their departure, refreshed themselves, and then marched away in
haste for their town of Rouvroy, where they
halted for the night. On the morrow they departed in handsome array, with their
convoy and artillery, armed with every accoutrement becoming warriors, and in a
few days arrived before Orleans, very much rejoiced at their good fortune in the
late attack from the French, and at having so successfully brought provision to
battle was ever afterward called the Battle of Herrings, because great part of
the convoy consisted of herrings and other articles of food suitable to Lent.
King Charles, on hearing the event, was sick at heart, seeing that the state of
his affairs was becoming worse and worse. This battle of Rouvroy was fought on
the night of the first Sunday in Lent, about three hours after midnight. The
English lost only one man of note, called Bresanteau, nephew to sir Simon
Morbier, provost of Paris.
part of the English were that day made knights, Galloy d'Aunoy, lord d'Orville,
the great Raoulin, and Louis de Luxu, a Savoyard. The army of the English might
have consisted of about seventeen hundred combatants of tried courage, without
including common men; and the French, as I have said, were from three to four
thousand at least. The lord de Chateaubrun and some others were knighted at the
same time with Charles de Bourbon. Only one prisoner was made that day, and he
was a Scotsman.
CHAPTER 57: A MAIDEN NAMED
JOAN WAITS ON KING CHARLES AT CHINON,
In the course of this
year, a young girl called Joan, about twenty years old, and dressed like a man,
came to Charles king of France at Chinon. She was born in the town of Droimy, on
the borders of Burgundy and Lorraine, not far from Vaucouleurs, and had been for
some time hostler and chambermaid to an inn, and had shown much courage in
riding horses to water, and in other feats unusual for young girls to do. She
was instructed how to act, and sent to the king by sir Robert de Baudricourt ,
knight, governor of Vaucouleurs, who supplied her with horses and from four to
six men as an escort. She called herself a maiden inspired by the divine grace,
and said that she was sent to restore king Charles to his kingdom, whence he had
been unjustly driven, and was now reduced to so deplorable a state.
remained about two months in the king's household, frequently admonishing him to
give her men and support, and that she would repulse his enemies, and exalt his
name. The king and council in the mean time knew not how to act; for they put no
great faith in what she said, considering her as one out of her senses; for to
such noble persons the expressions she used are dangerous to be believed, as
well for fear of the anger of the Lord, as for the blasphemous discourses which
they may occasion in the world. After some time, however, she was promised men-at-arms
and support: a standard was also given her, on which she caused to be painted a
representation of our Creator. All her conversation was of God, on which account
great numbers of those who heard her had great faith in what she said, and
believed her inspired, as she declared herself to be.
was many times examined by learned clerks, and other prudent persons of rank, to
find out her real intentions; but she kept to her purpose, and always replied,
that if the king would believe her, she would restore to him his kingdom. In the
mean time, she did several acts which shall be hereafter related, that gained
her great renown. When she, came first to the king, the duke d'Alencon, the
king's marshal, and other captains were with him, for he had held a grand
council relative to the siege of Orleans: from Chinon the king went to Poitiers,
accompanied by the Maid.
after, the marshal was ordered to convey provisions and stores, under a strong
escort, to the army within Orleans. Joan requested to accompany him, and that
armour should be given her, which was done. She then displayed her standard and
went to Blois where the escort was to assemble, and thence to Orleans, always
dressed in complete armour. On this expedition many warriors served under her;
and when she arrived at Orleans great feasts were made for her, and the garrison
and townsmen were delighted at her coming among them.
CHAPTER 58: AMBASSADORS ARE SENT BY KING CHARLES, AND
THE BURGHERS OF ORLEANS, TO PARIS, TO NEGOTIATE A TREATY WITH THE REGENT, THAT
THE TOWN OF ORLEANS MAY REMAIN IN PEACE. [A. D. 1429.]
beginning of this year, the duke of Burgundy arrived at Paris with about six
hundred horse, and was most joyfully received by the duke of Bedford and the
duchess his sister. Soon after came thither Poton de Saintrailles, Pierre
d'Orgin, and, other noble ambassadors from king Charles, with envoys from the
town of Orleans, to negotiate with the duke-regent and king Henry's
council for that town to remain in peace, and that it should be placed in the
hands of the duke of Burgundy, for him to govern it at his pleasure, and to
maintain its neutrality. It was also pleaded, that the duke of Orleans and his
brother the count d'Angouleme, who had for a long time past been the right
owners of the town, were now prisoners in England, and had been no way concerned
in this war.
duke of Bedford assembled his council many times on this matter, but they could
not agree respecting it. Several urged the great expenses king Henry had been
put to for this siege, and the great losses he had sustained of his principal
captains, adding, that the town could not hold out much longer, for it was hard
pressed for provision, and that it was a place more advantageous for them to
possess than any other, supporting what they said by several weighty reasons.
Others were not pleased that it should be put into the hands of the duke of
Burgundy, saying that it was unreasonable, when king Henry and his vassals had
supported all the risks and danger, that the duke of Burgundy should reap the
profit and honour, without striking a blow. One among them, called master Raoul
le Saige, said, that he would never be present when they should chew, for the
duke of Burgundy to swallow. In short, after much debating of the business, it
was finally concluded that the request of the ambassadors should not be granted,
and that the town should no otherwise be received in favour than by its
surrender to the English. The ambassadors, hearing this, made a reply, which
they had not, however, been charged with, that they knew well the townsmen of
Orleans would suffer the utmost extremities rather than submit to such
conditions. The ambassadors then returned to Orleans, to report the answer they
duke of Burgundy was very well pleased with their conduct in this matter, and
would not have disliked, had it been agreeable to the regent and council, to
have had the government of Orleans, as much from his affection to his cousin of
Orleans as to prevent it suffering the perils likely to befall it; but the
English, at that time, in full tide of prosperity, never considered that the
wheel of fortune might turn against them. The duke of Burgundy, while at Paris,
had made many requests to his brother-in-law the regent, for himself
and his adherents, which, however, were but little attended to. Having staid at
Paris about three weeks, he returned to Flanders, where he was attacked by a
severe illness, but by the attentions of able physicians he recovered his
THE MAID WITH MANY NOBLE FRENCH CAPTAINS OF GREAT RENOWN REINFORCE AND
REVICTUAL THE TOWN OF ORLEANS, AND AFTERWARDS RAISE THE SIEGE.
captains had continued their siege of Orleans about seven months, and had much
straitened it by their batteries and towers, of which they had erected not less
than sixty. The besieged, sensible of the peril they were in of being conquered,
resolved to defend themselves to the last, and sent to king Charles for
reinforcements of men, and a supply of stores and provision. From four to five
hundred combatants were first sent; but they were followed by seven thousand
more, who escorted a convoy of provision up the river Loire. With these last
came Joan, the Maid, who bad already done some acts that had increased her
reputation. The English attempted to cut off this convoy; but it was well
defended by the Maid and those with her, and brought with safety to Orleans, to
the great joy of the inhabitants, who made good cheer, and were rejoiced at its
safe arrival and the coming of the Maid.
the morrow, which was a Thursday, Joan rose early, and addressing herself to
some of the principal captains, prevailed on them to arm, and follow her, for
she wished, as she said, to attack the enemy, being fully assured they would be
vanquished. These captains and other warriors, surprised at her words, were
induced to arm and make an assault on the tower of St. Loup, which was very
strong, and garrisoned with from three to four hundred English. They were,
notwithstanding the strength of the blockhouse, soon defeated, and all killed or
made prisoners, and the fortification was set on fire and demolished. The Maid,
having accomplished her purpose, returned with the nobles and knights who had
followed her to the town of Orleans, where she was greatly feasted and honoured
by all ranks. The ensuing day she again made a sally, with a certain number of
combatants, to attack another of the English forts, which was as well garrisoned
as the former one, but which was in like manner destroyed by fire, and those
within put to the sword. On her return to the town after this second exploit,
she was more honoured and respected than ever.
the next day, Saturday, she ordered the tower at the end of the bridge to be
attacked. This was strongly fortified, and had within it the flower of the
English chivalry and men-at-arms, who defended themselves for a long time with
the utmost courage; but it availed them nothing, for by dint of prowess they
were overcome, and the greater part put to the sword. On this occasion were
slain, a valiant English captain named Classendach, the lord Molins, the bailiff
of Evreux, and many more warriors of great and noble estate.
Maid, after this victory, returned to Orleans with the nobles who had
accompanied her, and with but little loss of men. Notwithstanding that at these
three attacks Joan was, according to common fame, supposed to have been the
leader, she had with her all the most expert and gallant captains who for the
most part had daily served at this siege of Orleans, mention of whom has been
before made. Each of these three captains exerted himself manfully at these
attacks, so that from six to eight thousand combatants were killed or taken,
while the French did not lose more than one hundred men of all ranks.
ensuing Sunday, the English captains, namely, the earl of Suffolk, lord Talbot,
lord Scales and others, seeing the destruction of their forts, and the defeat of
their men, resolved, after some deliberation, to form the remains of their army
into one body, march out of their camp, and wait prepared for any engagement,
should the enemy be willing to offer them battle, otherwise they would march
away in good order for such towns as were under their obedience. This resolution
they instantly executed on Sunday morning, when they abandoned their forts,
setting fire to several, and drew up in battle-array, expecting the French would
come to fight with them; but they had no such intentions, having been exhorted
to the contrary by Joan the Maid. The English, having waited a considerable time
for them, in vain, marched away, lest their forces might be further diminished,
without prospect of success.
townsmen of Orleans were greatly rejoiced on seeing themselves, by their
dishonourable retreat, delivered from such false and traitorous enemies, who had
for so long a time kept them in the utmost danger.
Many men at arms were dispatched to examine the remaining forts, in which
they found some provision, and great quantities of other things, all of which
were carried safely to the town, and made good cheer of, for they had cost them
nothing. The whole of these castles were soon burnt, and razed to the ground, so
that no men at arms, from whatever country they might come, should ever lodge in
CHAPTER 60: THE
KING OF FRANCE, AT THE REQUESTS OF THE MAID JOAN AND THE NOBLE CAPTAINS IN
ORLEANS, SENDS THEM A LARGE REINFORCEMENT OF MEN-AT-ARMS TO PURSUE HIS ENEMIES.
within Orleans, and the captains who accompanied the Maid, with one com–mon
accord, sent messengers to the king of France, to inform him of their vigorous
exploits, and that the English had retreated to their own garrisons, requesting
him, at the same time, to send them as many men-at-arms as he could procure,
with some of the great lords, that they might be enabled to pursue his enemies,
now quite dismayed at their reverse of fortune, and praying that he himself
would advance towards the country where they were.
This intelligence was very agreeable to the king and his council, and the advice readily, as may be supposed, attended to. He instantly summoned to his presence the constable, the duke d'Alencon Charles lord d'Albreth, and many other lords of renown, the greater part of whom were sent to the town of Orleans. After some time, the king advanced, with a considerable force, to Gien, where many councils were held with the captains from Orleans and the nobles lately arrived, whether or not they should pursue the English. To these councils the first person summoned Maid, for she was now in high reputation. At length, on the 4th day of May, the siege of Orleans been raised; the French took the field with about five or six thousand combatants, and marched straight for Gergeau, where the earl of Suffolk and his brothers were quartered. The earl had sent frequent messages to the regent at Paris, to acquaint him with the misfortunes that had happened at Orleans, and to request speedy succours, or he would be in danger of losing several towns and castles which he held in Beauce and on the river Loire. The duke of Bedford was much angered and cast down at this intelligence; but seeing the necessity of immediately attending to what was most urgent, sent in haste for four or five thousand men from all the parts under his dominion, whom he ordered toward the country of Orleans, under the command of Sir Thomas Rampstone, the bastard de Thian and others, promising very soon to join them with the large reinforcements which he was daily expecting from England.
CHAPTER 61: THE
MAID JOAN, WITH THE CONSTABLE OF FRANCE, THE DUKE D'ALENCON, AND THEIR MEN,
CONQUER THE TOWN OF GERGEAU. THE
BATTLE OF PATAYE, WHEN THE FRENCH DEFEAT THE ENGLISH.
The constable of France, the duke d'Alencon, Joan the Maid, and other captains, having, as I said, taken the field, advanced with their army to Gergeau, wherein was the earl of Suffolk, and from three to four hundred of his men, who, with the inhabitants, made all diligence to put themselves in a posture of defence. The place was very soon surrounded by the enemy, who commenced an instant assault on the walls. This lasted a considerable space, and was very bloody; but the French pushed on so boldly that the town was stormed in spite of the courage of the besieged, and about three hundred of the English slain, among whom was a brother to the earl of Suffolk. The earl and another of his brothers, the lord de la Pole, were made prisoners, with sixty or more of their men.
was the town and castle of Gergeau won by the French, who after their victory
refreshed themselves at their ease. On departing thence, they went to Mehun,
which soon surrendered; and the English who were in la Ferte-Imbaut fled in a
body to Beaugency, whither they were pursued by the French, always having the
Maid with her standard in front, and they quartered themselves near to Beaugency.
The whole report of the country now resounded with praises of the Maid, and no
other warrior was noticed.
principal English captains in Beaugency, observing that the fame of this Maid
had turned their good fortune, that many of their towns and castles were now
under the subjection of the enemy, some through force of arms, others by
composition, and that their men were panic-struck by their misfortunes, were
very desirous of retiring into Normandy. They were, however, uncertain how to
act, or whether they should soon receive succour; and thus situated, they
treated with the French for the delivery of the town, on condition that they
might depart in safety with their property. On the conclusion of this treaty,
the English marched away through Beauce toward Paris; and the French joyfully
entered Beaugency, whence they resolved, by the advice of the Maid, to advance
to meet a party of the English, who they heard were marching to offer them
combat. They again took the field, and were daily reinforced by newcomers.
constable ordered the marshal de Boussac, La Hire, Poton, and some other
captains, to form the vanguard; and the main body, under the command of the duke
d'Alencon the bastard of Orleans, and the marshal de Raix, amounting to eight or
nine thousand combatants, to follow it close. The Maid was asked by some of the
princes, what she would advise to be done, or if she had any orders to give. She
said, "that she knew full well their ancient enemies the English were on
their march to fight with them, but in God's name advance boldly against them,
and assuredly they shall be conquered." Some present having asked,
"where they should meet them?" she replied, "Ride boldly forward,
and you will be conducted to them"
army was then drawn up in battle array, and advanced slowly, for they had
dispatched sixty or eighty of their most expert men-at-arms, mounted on the
fleetest horses, to reconnoitre the country and gain intelligence of the enemy.
They thus marched for some time, until they came within half a league of a large
village called Pataye. The men-at-arms
who had been sent to reconnoitre put up a stag, which ran straight for the army
of the English, who were assembling their men together, namely those who had
come from Paris, as has been mentioned, and those who had marched from Beaugency,
and the English seeing the stag dash through them, set up a loud shout, not
knowing the enemy was so near; but this shout satisfied the scouts where the
English were, and a moment afterward they saw them quite plain. They sent back
some of their companions with intelligence of what they had seen, and they
desired that the army might advance in order of battle, for the hour of business
was at hand. They immediately made every preparation with great courage, and
were soon insight of the enemy.
English, observing the French advance, made also their preparations with
diligence for the combat. Some of the captains proposed that they should
dismount where they then were, and take advantage of the hedge rows to prevent
being surprised on their rear; but others were of a contrary opinion, and said
they should be better off on the plain. In
consequence they retreated about half a quarter of a league from their former
position, which was full of hedges and bushes. The French were very eager to
come up with them; and the greater part dismounted, turning their horses loose.
vanguard of the French were impatient for the attack, having lately found the
English very slack in their defence, and made so sudden and violent a charge
that they were unable to form themselves in proper order. Sir John Fastolfe and
the bastard de Thian had not dismounted, and, to save their lives they, with
many other knights, set off full gallop. In the mean time those who had
dismounted were surrounded by the French before they had time to fortify
themselves, as usual, with sharp-pointed stakes in their front; and without
doing any great mischief to the French, they were soon completely defeated.
About eighteen hundred English were left dead on the field, and from one hundred
to six score made prisoners, the principal of whom were the lords Scales,
Talbot, Hungerford, Sir Thomas Rampstone and several more. Some of the great
lords were killed, and the rest were people of low degree, of the same sort as
those whom they were accustomed to bring from their own country to die in
the business was over, which was about two o'clock in the afternoon, all the
French captains assembled together, and devoutly and humbly returned thanks to
their Creator for the victory. They were very gay on their good fortune, and
lodged that night in the village of Pataye, which is two leagues distant from
Anville in Beauce; and this battle will bear the name of that town forever.
the morrow, the French returned to Orleans and the adjacent parts with their
prisoners. They were everywhere received with the utmost joy; but the Maid
especially seemed to have acquired so great renown, it was believed that tire
king's enemies could not resist her, and that by her means lie would soon be
acknowledged throughout his kingdom. She accompanied the other captains to the
king, who was much rejoiced at their success, and gave them a gracious
reception. Several councils were held in the presence of the king; and it was
resolved to collect as many men-at-arms as possible from all parts
under his dominion to pursue his enemies.
the day of the battle of Pataye, before the English knew that their enemies were
so near, Sir John Fastolfe one of the chief captains, and who fled without
striking a blow, assembled a council, when he remonstrated on the losses they
had suffered before Orleans, at Gergeau and other places, which had greatly
lowered the courage of their men, and on the contrary raised that of the French,
and which made him now advise that they should retire to some of their strong
towns in the neighbourhood, and not think of combating the enemy until their men
were more reconciled to their late defeats, and until the reinforcements should
be sent them which the regent was expecting from England.
This language was not very agreeable to some of the captains, more
especially to lord Talbot, who declared that if the enemy came he would fight
Fastolfe was bitterly reproached by the duke of Bedford for having thus fled
from the battle, and he was deprived of the order of the Garter: however, in
time, the remonstrances he had made in council, previously to the battle, were
considered as reasonable; and this, with other circumstances and excuses he
made, regained him the order of the Garter.
Nevertheless, great quarrels arose between him and lord Talbot on this
business, when the latter was returned from his captivity.
Prior to the battle of Pataye, Jacques de Milly, Gilles de St. Simon,
Louis de Marconnay, Jean de la Haye, and other valiant men, were made knights by
CHAPTER 62: THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY, AT THE REQUEST OF THE
DUKE OF BEDFORD COMES TO PARIS, WHEN THEY RENEW THEIR ALLIANCES.
When news of
this unfortunate defeat was known to the duke of Bedford and the council at
Paris, he was very much disturbed, and several, on hearing of it, wept in the
council. They were also informed, that king Charles was assembling his forces to
march and conquer all the country before him. In consequence of this, the duke
of Bedford and the Parisians appointed a solemn embassy to duke Philip of
Burgundy, to make him acquainted with the strange events that had happened, and
to request that lie would hasten to Paris, to advise with the regent and leis
ministers how to act in. these extraordinary circumstances. The ambassadors on
this occasion were, the bishop of Noyon, two celebrated doctors in theology from
the university, and some of the principal burghers of Paris. They found the duke
at Hedin, related to him the cause of their coming, and earnestly required of
him, on the part of his brother-in-law the regent and the Parisians, that lie
would be pleased to come to Paris with all diligence, to concert measures with
them for the more effectually opposing their adversaries.
duke complied with their request, and promised to be at Paris within a few days.
He instantly assembled from seven to eight hundred combatants from his
territories in Artois, by whom he was escorted to Paris. His arrival gave great
joy to all ranks, and for many days he and the regent held constant councils on
the present state of affairs, at the end of which they entered into the
following mutual engagement, namely, that each would exert his whole powers to
resist their adversary Charles de Valois, and then solemnly renewed the
alliances that existed between them. When these things were done, the duke of
Burgundy returned to Artois, and carried his sister the duchess of Bedford with
him, whom he established with her household at Lens in Artois. The duke of
Bedford dispatched messengers to England, with orders to send him, without
delay, as large a body of the most expert men-at-arms as could be raised. In
like manner he called to him the different garrisons in Normandy, and from other
parts under his government, with all nobles and others accustomed to bear arms.
little time before, about four thousand combatants had been sent from England to
the regent, under the command of the cardinal of Winchester, who crossed the sea
with them to Calais, and thence marched to Amiens. The cardinal went from Amiens
to Corbie, to meet the duke of Burgundy and his sister-in-law the duchess of
Bedford, who were on their return from Paris. After they had conferred together
some time, the cardinal went back to Amiens, and conducted leis men to the
regent, who was much rejoiced at their arrival. In these days, John, bastard of
St. Pol, was sent to the duke of Bedford with a certain number of men from
Picardy, by orders of the duke of Burgundy. The regent appointed him governor of
the town and castle of Meaux in Brie, and gave him the sovereign command of all
the adjacent country, to defend it against the power of king Charles, who was
daily expected in these parts.
KING CHARLES OF FRANCE TAKES THE FIELD WITH A NUMEROUS BODY OF CHIVALRY AND MEN-AT-ARMS.
MANY TOWNS AND CASTLES SUBMIT TO HIM ON HIS MARCH.
things were passing, Charles king of France assembled at Bourges in Berry a very
great force of men-at-arms and archers, among whom were the duke d'Alencon,
Charles de Bourbon count of Clermont, Arthur count of Richemont constable of
France, Charles of Anjou, brother-in-law to the king, and son to Rene king of
Sicily, the bastard of Orleans, the cadet of Armagnac, Charles lord d'Albreth,
and many other nobles and powerful barons from the countries of Aquitaine,
Gascony, Poitou, Berry and different parts, whom he marched to Gien on the
Loire. He was always accompanied by
the Maid and a preaching friar of the order of St.
Augustin, called Richard, who lead lately been driven out of Paris, and from
other places under subjection to the English, for having in his sermons shown
himself too favourable to the French party. From Gien the king marched toward
Auxerre; but the constable went with a large detachment to Normandy and Evreux,
to prevent the garrisons in that country joining the duke of Bedford. On the
other hand, the cadet d'Armagnac was despatched into the Bourdelois to guard
Aquitaine and those parts.
king on his march reduced two towns to his obedience, Gergeau and St. Florentin,
the inhabitants of which promised henceforward to be faithful to him, and to
conduct themselves as loyal subjects should do to their lord: and. they obtained
the king's promise that he would rule them Justly, and according to their
ancient customs. He thence marched to Auxerre, and sent to summon the
inhabitants to surrender to their natural and legal lord. At first, the townsmen
were not inclined to listen to any terms, but commissioners being appointed on
each side, a treaty was concluded, in which they engaged to render similar
obedience to what the towns of Troyes, Chalons, and Rheims, should assent to.
They supplied the king's army with provision for money, and remained peaceable,
for the king held them excused this time.
king marched next to Troyes, and encamped his men around it. He was three days
there before the inhabitants would admit him as their lord: however, in
consideration of certain promises made them, they opened the gates and permitted
him and his army to enter their town, where he heard muss. When the usual oaths
had been received and given on each side, the king returned to his camp, and
caused it to be proclaimed several times throughout the camp and town, that no
one, under pain of death, should molest the inhabitants of Troyes, or those of
the other towns which had submitted to his obedience. On this expedition, the
two marshals, namely, Boussac and the lord de Raix, commanded the van division,
and with them were, la Hire, Poton de Saintrailles, and other captains. Very
many great towns and castles submitted to king Charles on his march, the
particulars of which I shall pass over for the sake of brevity.
CHAPTER 64: KING CHARLES OF FRANCE, WITH A NOBLE CHIVALRY AND A NUMEROUS
BODY OF MEN-AT-ARMS, ARRIVES AT RHEIMS, WHERE HE IS CROWNED BY THE ARCHBISHOP OF
During the time king Charles
remained at Troyes in Champagne, deputies arrived from
men of Rheims carried their resolution of submitting to king Charles into
effect, as you have heard, through the instigation of the archbishop, who was
chancellor to king Charles, and some others. The king made his public entry into
Rheims on Friday, the 6th day of July, attended by a noble chivalry; and on the
following Sunday he was crowned by the archbishop in the cathedral of Rheims, in
presence of all his princes, barons, and knights,
then with him. In the number were, the duke d'Alencon the count de Clermont, the
lord de la Trimouille, his principal minister, the lord de Beaumanoir, a Breton,
the lord de Mailly, in Touraine, who were dressed in coronation robes, to
represent the noble peers of France absent at this ceremony. They had been,
however, called over at the great altar by France king-at-arms, in the usual
the coronation was over, the king went to the archiepiscopal palace to dinner,
attended by his princes and nobles. The archbishop was seated at the king's
table, and the king was served by the duke d'Alencon, the count de Clermont, and
other great lords. The king, on his coronation, created, while in the church,
three knights, of whom the youth of Commercis was one. On his leaving Rheims, he
appointed sir Anthony de Hollande, nephew to the archbishop, governor; and on
the morrow of his departure, he went on a pilgrimage to Corbeni, to pay
adoration to St. Marcou. Thither came deputies from Laon, to submit themselves
to his obedience in the manner other towns had done.
Corbeni, the king went to Provins and Soissons, which places, without
hesitation, opened their gates to him. He made La Hire bailiff of the Vermandois,
in the room of sir Colart de Mailly, who had been appointed to that office by
king Henry. The king and his army next came before Chateau-Thierry, in which
were the lord de Chatillon, John de Croy, John de Brimeu, and other great lords
of the Burgundian party, with about four hundred combatants. These gentlemen,
perceiving the townsmen inclined to submit to the. king, and not expecting any
speedy succour, and being withal poorly provided for defence, yielded up the
town and castle to king Charles, and marched away with their effects and baggage
undisturbed. They went to the duke of Bedford at Paris, who was then collecting
a sufficient body of men-at-arms to combat the French.
CHAPTER 65: THE
DUKE OF BEDFORD ASSEMBLES A LARGE ARMY TO COMBAT KING CHARLES.
HE SENDS A LETTER TO THE KING.
At this period,
the regent duke of Bedford, having collected about ten thousand combatants from
England, Normandy, and other parts, marched them from Rouen toward Paris, with
the intent to meet king Charles and offer him battle. He advanced, through the
country of Brie, to Montereau-faut-Yonne, whence he sent ambassadors to the said
king, with a sealed letter of the following tenor: “We John of Lancaster,
regent of France and duke of Bedford, make known to you Charles de Valois, who
were wont to style yourself Dauphin of Vienne, but at present without cause call
yourself king, for wrongfully do you make attempts against the crown and
dominion of the very high, most excellent and renowned prince Henry, by the
grace of God true and natural lord of the kingdoms of France and England,
deceiving the simple people by your telling them you come to give peace and
security, which is not the fact, nor can it be done by the means you have
pursued and are now following to seduce and abuse ignorant people, with the aid
of superstitious and damnable persons, such as a woman of a disorderly and
infamous life, and dissolute manners, dressed in the clothes of a man, together
with an apostate and seditious mendicant friar, as we have been informed, both
of whom are, according to holy Scripture, abominable in the sight of God. You
have also gained possession, by force of arms, of the country of Champagne, and
of several towns and castles appertaining to my said lord the king, the
inhabitants of which you have induced to perjure themselves by breaking the
peace which had been most solemnly sworn to by the then kings of France and
England, the great barons, peers, prelates, and three estates of the realm.
“We, to defend and guard the right of our said lord the king, and to repulse you, from his territories, by the aid of the All-Powerful, have taken the field in person, and with the means God has given us, as you may have heard, shall pursue you from place to place in the hope of meeting you, which we have never yet done. As we most earnestly and heartily desire a final end to the war, we summon and require of you, if you be a prince desirous of gaining honour, to take compassion on the poor people, who have, on your account, been so long and so grievously harassed, that an end may be put to their afflictions, by terminating this war. Choose, therefore, in this country of Brie, where we both are, and not very distant from each other, any competent place for us to meet, and having fixed on a day, appear there with the abandoned woman, the apostate monk, and all your perjured allies, and such force as you may please to bring, when we will, with God's pleasure, personally meet you in the name and as the representative of my lord the king.
it then please you to make any proposals respecting peace, we will do every
thing that may be expected from a catholic prince, for we are always inclined to
conclude a solid peace, not such a false and treacherous one as that of
Montereau-faut-Yonne, when, through your connivance, that most horrid and
disgraceful murder was committed contrary to every law of chivalry and honour,
on the person of our late very dear and well-beloved father duke John of
Burgundy, whose soul may God receive! By
means of this peace so wickedly violated by you, upwards of one hundred nobles
have deserted your realm, as may be clearly shown by the letters patent under
your hand and seal, by which you have absolutely and unreservedly acquitted them
of every oath of loyalty, fealty and subjection. However, if from the iniquity
and malice of mankind peace cannot be obtained, we may each of us then with our
swords defend the cause of our quarrel before God, as our judge, and to whom and
none other will my said lord refer it. We therefore most humbly supplicate the
Almighty, as knowing the right of my lord in this matter, that he would dispose
the hearts of this people so that they may remain in peace without further
oppressions; and such ought to be the object of all Christian kings and princes
in regard to their subjects.
therefore, without using more arguments or longer delay, make known our
proposals to you, which should you refuse, and should further murders and
mischief be, through your fault, committed by a continuation of the war, we call
God to witness, and protest before him and the world, that we are no way the
cause, and that we have done and do our duty. We therefore profess our
willingness to consent to a solid and reasonable peace, and, should that be
rejected, then to resort to open combat becoming princes, when no other means
can accommodate their differences. In testimony whereof, we have had these
presents sealed with our seal.
at Montereau-faut-Yonne the 7th day of August, in the year of Grace 1429.”
Signed by my lord the regent of France and duke of Bedford.
THE ARMIES OF CHARLES KING OF FRANCE AND OF THE REGENT DUKE OF BEDFORD MEET NEAR
TO MONT EPILOY
The duke of
Bedford, finding that he could not meet the army of king Charles to. his
advantage, and that many towns were surrendering to the king without making any
resistance, withdrew his forces toward the Isle of France, to prevent the
principal towns in that district following their examples.
King Charles, in the meanwhile, advanced to Crespy, where he had been received as king, and, passing through Brie, was making for Senlis, when the two armies of the king and the duke came within sight of each other at Mont Epiloy, near to the town of Baron. Both were diligent in seizing the most advantageous positions for the combat. The duke of Bedford chose a strong post, well strengthened, on the rear and wings, with thick hedgerows. In the front, he drew up his archers in good array on foot, having each a sharppointed stake planted before them. The regent himself was with his lords in one battalion close to the archers, where, among the banners of the different lords, were displayed two having the arms of France and of England: the banner of St. George was likewise there, and borne that day by Jean de Villiers, knight, lord of Isle-Adam. The regent had with him from six to, eight hundred combatants from the duke of Burgundy, the chief leaders of whom were, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, Jean de Croy, Jean de Crequi, Anthony de Bethune, Jean de Fosseux., the lord de Saveuses, Sir Hugh de Launoy, Jean de Brimeu, Jean de Launoy, sir Simon de Lalain, Jean bastard de St. Pol, and other warriors, some of whom were then knighted. The bastard de St. Pol received that honour from the hand of the duke of Bedford, and Jean de Crequi, Jean de Croy, Anthony de Bethune, Jean de Fosseux, and le Liegeois de Humieres, by the hands of other knights.
these matters were ordered, the English were drawn up together on the left wing,
and the Picards, with those of the French in king Henry's interest, opposite to
them. They thus remained in battle-array for a considerable time, and were so
advantageously posted that the enemy could not attack them without very great
risk to themselves; add to which, they were plentifully supplied with provision
from the good town of Senlis, near to which they were.
King Charles had drawn up his
men with his most expert captains in the van division, the others remained with
him in the main battalion, excepting a few posted, by way of rearguard, toward
Paris. The king had a force of men-at-arms with him much superior in numbers to
the English. The Maid was also there, but perpetually changing her resolutions;
sometimes she was eager for the combat, at other times not. The two parties,
however, remained in this state, ever prepared to engage, for the space of two
days and two nights, during which were many skirmishes and attacks. To detail
them all would take too much time; but there was one very long and bloody, that
took place on the wing where the Picards were posted, and which lasted for an
hour and a half. The royal army fought with the utmost courage, and their
archers did much mischief with their arrows, insomuch that many persons thought,
seeing the numbers engaged, that it would not cease until one or other of the
parties were vanquished. They, however, separated, but not without many killed
and wounded on each side. The duke of Bedford was very well pleased with the
Picards for the gallantry and courage they had displayed, and when they had
retreated, he rode down their ranks, addressing them kindly, and saying, “My
friends, you are excellent people, and have valiantly sustained for us a severe
shock, for which we humbly thank you; and we entreat, that should any more
attacks be made on your post, you will persevere in the same valour and
parties were violently enraged against each other, so that no man, whatever his
rank, was that day ransomed, but every one put to death without mercy. I was
told, that about three hundred men were killed in these different skirmishes;
but I know not which side lost the most. At the end of two days, the armies
separated without coming to a general engagement.
KING CHARLES OF FRANCE SENDS AMBASSADORS TO THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY AT ARRAS.
About this time, ambassadors were sent to the duke of Burgundy, at Arras, by king Charles of France, to treat of a peace between them. The principal persons of this embassy were, the archbishop of Rheims, Christopher de Harcourt, the lords de Dammartin, de Gaucourt, and de Fontaines, knights, with some councillors of state. Having demanded an audience, some few days after their arrival, they remonstrated through the mouth of the archbishop with the duke of Burgundy most discreetly and wisely on the cause of their coming, and, among other topics, enlarged on the perfect affection the king bore him, and on his earnest desire to be at peace with him, for which purpose he was willing to make concessions and reparations even more than were becoming royal majesty. They excused him of the murder committed on the person of the late duke of Burgundy, on the score of his youth, alleging that he was then governed by persons regardless of the welfare of the kingdom, but whose measures at that time he dared not oppose.
These and other remonstrances
from the archbishop were kindly listened to by the duke and his council; and
when he had finished speaking, one of the duke's ministers replied, “My lord
and his council have heard with attention what you have said; he will consider
on it, and you shall have his answer within a few days.”
The archbishop and his companions now returned to their hotel, much
respected by all ranks, for the majority of the states were very desirous of a
peace between tire king and the duke of Burgundy. Even those of the middle
ranks, although there was neither truce nor peace, came to the chancellor of
France at Arras, to solicit letters of grace and remission, as if the king had
been in the full possession of his power, which grants, however, they obtained
from the archbishop as chancellor.
duke of Burgundy held many consultations with those of his privy council, which
much hastened the conclusion of this business.
THE LORD DE LONGUEVAL CONQUERS THE CASTLE OF AUMALE FROM THE ENGLISH.
The lord de Longueval, having been deprived of his estates, had turned to king Charles, and, by the means of a priest resident in Aumale, had gained the castle of the town, the chief place of that country, and held by the English. Four or five Englishmen were found within it, who were put to death; but the inhabitants were spared, on their making oath to behave in future like good Frenchmen, and paying a heavy ransom for their deliverance. This castle was shortly after repaired, re-victualled, and reinforced with men-at-arms, who carried on a continual warfare against the English and their allies in these parts. The duke of Bedford was much vexed at this; but he could not, by reason of more important matters, at the time go thither, nor provide any remedy. At this time also the castle of Estrepagny was taken by storm from the lord de Rambures and his men; but on the other hand, the fortress of Chateau-Gaillard was reduced to the obedience of king Charles, which is excellently situated and is very strong. In this castle had been confined for a long time that valiant knight the lord de Barbasan, who had been made prisoner, as has been said, by king Henry's army at Melun. By means of this lord de Barbasan was Chateau-Gaillard won, and himself freed from prison. He gave the command of it to some of his people, and soon after joined king Charles, by whom he was most joyfully received and honoured.
castle of Torcy was also put into the hands of the French by some of the country
people, who had connections with the English, and who betrayed it to the enemy.
Thus in a short time were four of the strongest castles of the enemy recovered;
and in consequence of their capture, those parts were very much harassed, both
by the French and English.
THE TOWN OF COMPIEGNE SURRENDERS TO THE FRENCH. THE RETURN OF THE
FRENCH EMBASSY WHICH HAD BEEN SENT TO THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY.
Charles was marching from near Senlis, where he and the duke of Bedford had been
within sight of each other, he was detained at Crespy in Valois, and there he
received intelligence that the town of Compiegne was willing to submit to his
obedience. He lost no time in going thither, and was received by the inhabitants
with great joy, and. lodged in the royal palace. His chancellor and the other
ambassadors to the duke of Burgundy, there met him, and informed him, that
although they had held many conferences with the ministers of the duke of
Burgundy, nothing had been finally concluded, except that the duke had agreed to
send ambassadors to king Charles to confer further on the subject. They had
learnt that the majority of the duke's council were very desirous that peace
should be established between the king and him, but that master John de Tourcy,
bishop of Tournay, and Sir Hugh de Launoy, had been charged by the duke of
Bedford to remind the duke of Burgundy of his oaths to king Henry, and were
against a peace with the king of France. This had delayed the matter, and
further time had been required by the duke to send his ambassadors. He had,
however, nominated sir John de Luxembourg, the bishop of Arras, Sir David de
Brimeu, with other discreet and noble persons, for the purpose.
this time, sir Lyonnel de Bournouville, who had lost his town and castle of
Creil, requested some men-at-arms from the duke of Bedford to reconquer one of
his castles called Breteictre, which the French had won. His request was
granted, and he took the fort by storm, putting to death all within it, but he
was so severely wounded himself that he died soon after.
CHAPTER 70: THE
KING OF FRANCE MAKES AN ATTACK ON THE CITY OF PARIS.
Charles's stay at Compiegne, news was brought him that the regent duke of
Bedford had marched with his whole army to Normandy, to combat the constable
near to Evreux, where he was despoiling the country. The king did not leave
Compiegne for ten or twelve days, when lie marched for Senlis, appointing sir
William de Flavy the governor. Senlis surrendered on capitulation to the king,
who fixed his quarters in the town, and distributed his army in the country
about it. Many towns and villages now submitted to the king's obedience; namely,
Creil, Beauvais, Choisy, le Pont de St. Maixence; Gournay Sur l'Aronde, Remy la
Neuville en Hez, Moignay, Chantilly, Saintry, and others.
lords de Montmorency and de Moy took the oatlis of allegiance to him ; and, in
truth, had lie marched leis army to St. Quentin, Corbie, Amiens, Abbeville, and
to other strong towns and castles, the majority of the inhabitants were ready to
acknowledge him for their lord, and desired nothing more earnestly than to do
him homage, and open their gates. He was, however, advised not to advance so far
on the territories of the duke of Burgundy, as well from there being a
considerable force of men-at-arms, as because he was in the expectation that an
amicable treaty would be concluded between them. After king Charles had halted
some days in Senlis, he dislodged and marched to St. Denis, which he found
almost abandoned, for the richer inhabitants had gone to Paris. He quartered his
men at Aubervilliers, Montmartre, and in the villages round Paris. The Maid Joan
was with him, and in high reputation, and daily pressed the king and princes to
make an attack on Paris.
was at length determined that on Monday, the 12th day of the month, the city
should be stormed, and, in consequence, every preparation was made for it. On
that day, the king drew up leis army in battle-array between Montmartre and
Paris; his princes, lords, and the Maid, were with him; the van division was
very strong; and thus, with displayed banner, lie marched to the gate of St.
Honore, carrying thither scaling-ladders, fascines, and all things necessary for
the assault. He ordered his infantry to descend into the ditches; and the attack
commenced at ten O'clock, which was very severe and murderous, and lasted four
or five hours. The Parisians had with them Louis de Luxembourg, the bishop of
Therouenne, king Henry's chancellor, acid other notable knights, whom the duke
of Burgundy had sent thither, such as the lord de Crequi, the lord de l'Isle-Adam,
sir Simon de Lalain, Valeran de Bournouville, and other able men, with four
hundred combatants. They made a vigorous defence, having posted a sufficient
force at the weakest parts before the attack began. Many of the French were
driven back into the ditches, and numbers were killed and wounded by the cannon
and culverines from the ramparts. Among the last was the Maid, who was very
dangerously hurt; she remained the whole of the day behind a small hillock until
vespers, when Guichard de Thiembronne came to seek her. A great many of the
besieged suffered also. At length the French captains, seeing the danger of
their men, and that it was impossible to gain the town by force against so
obstinate a defence, and that the inhabitants seemed determined to continue it,
without any disagreement among themselves, sounded the retreat. They carried off
the dead and wounded, and returned to their former quarters. On the morrow, king
Charles, very melancholy at the loss of his men, went to Senlis, to have the
wounded attended to and cured.
Parisians were more unanimous than ever, and mutually promised each other to
oppose, until death, king Charles, who wanted to destroy them all. Perhaps,
knowing how much they had misbehaved by forcing him to quit Paris, and by
putting to death some of his most faithful servants, they were afraid of meeting
with their deserts.
THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY SENDS AMBASSADORS TO AMIENS, TO KEEP UP HIS INTEREST
WITH THE INHABITANTS.
In these days,
the duke sent as ambassadors, to Amiens, the bishops of Noyon, of Arras, the
vidame of Amiens, and others, to remind the mayor and townsmen of the good
affection which lie and his predecessors had ever shown them; and to say, that
if there was any thing he or his friends could do for them, they were at their
commands; requesting them, in return, to persevere in their attachment to his
interests, like good friends and neighbours. The townsmen of Amiens, seeing
themselves thus honoured and courted by such ambassadors from so mighty a
prince, were in the highest spirits, and said among themselves, that it would be
well to put their town under his protection, on his abolishing all taxes. They
replied to the ambassadors, that they would shortly send commissioners to the
duke to declare their intentions. They did send commissioners in conjunction
with deputies from Abbeville, Montrieul, St. Riquier, Dourlens, and others, who
were instructed to demand an abolition of taxes. This was not granted by the
duke, but he promised them his support and assistance to obtain their demand
front king Henry.
At this time the duke of
Burgundy summoned from Picardy and the adjacent parts, all those who had been
accustomed to bear arms, to be ready prepared to join and march with him where
he might please to lead them. They were soon assembled in great bodies, and
passed muster at Beauquene, where they took the oaths before sir James de Brimeu,
constituted marshal for this purpose. They advanced toward Abbeville and St.
Riquier, where they remained a considerable time waiting for the duke of
Burgundy, which was a heavy oppression to those parts.
CHARLES KING OF FRANCE RETURNS TO TOURAINE AND BERRY.
King Charles, finding the city of Paris unwilling to submit to his obedience, resolved with those of his council to appoint governors to all the towns and castles which had surrendered to him, and to return himself to Touraine and Berry. Having determined on this, he made Charles de Bourbon, count of Clermont, governor in chief of the Isle de France and of Beauvoisis: his chancellor had the command in the town of Beauvais, the count de Vendome at Senlis, William de Flavy, at Compiegne, Sir James de Chabannes at Creil. The king, attended by the other great lords who had come with him, went from Senlis to Crespy, and thence, by Sens and Burgundy, to Touraine; for the truce between the Burgundians and French did not expire until Easter. The passage of the Pont de St. Maixence, of which the French now had possession, was again entrusted to the hands of Regnault de Longueval, so that all that part of France was at this time sorely distressed by the French and English garrisons making daily inroads on each other; in consequence of which the villages were deserted, by the inhabitants retiring to the strong towns.
CHAPTER 74: THE
FRENCH AND BURGUNDIANS ATTACK EACH OTHER, NOTWITHSTANDING THE TRUCE.
Although a truce had been concluded between king Charles and the duke of Burgundy, it was very little respected on either side, for they frequently attacked each other. To cover their proceedings, some of the Burgundians joined the English, with whom no truce had been made, and thus carried on open war against the French. The French acted in the same way, by making war on the Burgundians, under pretence of mistaking them for English, so that the truce afforded no manner of security. Among others, a gallant act was done by a valiant man-at-arms from England, called Foulkes, with whom some of the Burgundians had united themselves: and they were quartered in a handsome castle at Neuville le Roi, which they had repaired.
formed a plan to surprise the town of Creil and plunder it, and placed an
ambuscade near that place, that if the enemy should pursue them, they might fall
into it. What they had supposed did happen; for sir James de Chabannes, the
governor, hearing a disturbance, instantly armed, and, mounting his horse,
galloped into the plain, to attack the English. At the first onset, Georges de
Croix was made prisoner, and several unhorsed. A grand skirmish ensued; but, in
the end, by the valour and perseverance of the said Foulkes, sir James and two
other knights were made prisoners, together with some of their ablest men. In
this action, however, Foulkes was struck on the uncovered part of his neck with
the sharp point of a spear, so that he instantly died, though the wound was very
small. All those of his party who knew him greatly lamented his death, and were
sorry at heart, for they looked on him as one of the most valiant and expert men-at-arms
remaining English now collected together, under their leaders, Bohart de
Boyentin and Robinet Eguetin, and returned with the prisoners to their castle.
Within a few days they concluded a treaty with sir James de Chabannes, giving
him his liberty on his paying a certain sum of money, and delivering up Georges
de Croix. The duke of Bedford, perceiving that Chateau Galliard, from its
situation and strength, greatly annoyed the adjacent countries in Normandy,
resolved to have it besieged before the enemy could revictual it, or reinforce
it. The siege lasted from six to seven months, and it was then surrendered from
want of provisions, and the garrison was allowed to march away with their
baggage and effects.
CHAPTER 75: THE
LORD DE SAVEUSES AND THE BASTARD DE ST. POL ARE MADE PRISONERS BY THE FRENCH,
NEAR TO PARIS. A PARTY OF FRENCH
GAIN THE TOWN OF ST. DENIS BY SCALADO.
time, the duke of Burgundy sent the lord de Saveuses and John de Brimeu, with
five hundred combatants, to assist the Parisians against the French, who were
daily making excursions on all sides of the town, to the great loss of the
inhabitants. They quartered themselves in St. Denis, and gained several
advantages over the enemy in their many skirmishes; but one day, the French,
having formed a junction with some of the garrisons on the side of Montlehery,
advanced to Paris, leaving a detachment in ambuscade at a small village. At that
time the lord de Saveuses and the bastard de St Pol were in Paris, and, hearing
the disturbance, hastily mounted their horses, and set out instantly in pursuit
of the enemy, with few attendants, and without waiting for their men-at-arms.
The French, in their flight, made for the ambuscade, where these two knights,
finding resistance vain, were taken prisoners by them, and carried away, with a
few of their attendants, to one of their castles. The bastard de St. Pol was
badly wounded in they neck by a lance before he was taken, and was some time in
danger of his life. The two knights, however, on paying a heavy ransom, soon
returned to Paris, to the great joy of the inhabitants.
the other hand, the French, under the command of Allain Geron, Gaucher de
Bruissart, and other captains, advanced, at the break of day, to St. Denis; in
which town, John de Brimeu was lately arrived with some men-at-arms, whom he had
brought from Artois, and he had also some of the men of the lord de Saveuses. A
party of the French gained admittance by means of ladders, and opening one of
the gates, their whole body rushed in, shouting, “Town won!” and battering
down the doors and windows of all the houses wherein they thought there were any
Burgundians, who, on hearing the noise, were much alarmed. Some retreated to the
strong parts of the town, and John de Brimeu with many to the abbey; the bastard
de Saveuses to the gate leading to Paris, and others saved themselves under
different, gates; while great part, sallying out of their quarters to join their
captains, were made prisoners or slain. Among the prisoners were Anthony de
Wistre, Thierry de Manlingehem, and from twelve to sixteen others, mostly
gentlemen. Thevenin de Thenequestes, Jean do Hautecloque, and a few more, were
the affray was going on, John de Brimeu and his companions recovered their
courage, and began to assemble in different parts where they heard their war-cries;
and having introduced a valiant man-at-arms, called Guillaume de Beauval, lie
collected a body of men and attacked the enemy, who were more intent on
pillaging than on keeping good order, and drove them out of the town, with the
loss of eight or ten of their men. The lord de Saveuses, then in Paris, hearing
of this attack, assembled in haste as many men as lie could, and galloped off to
succour his friends at St. Denis: but before his arrival the French were gone,
and had retreated toward Senlis and others of their garrisons, carrying with
them many horses from those in St. Denis.
this same time, the English besieged the lord de Rambays in his castle of
Estrepaigny, the inheritance of the count de and remained so long battering it
with their engines that the lord de Rambays, hopeless of succour, treated with
the English for its surrender, on condition that lie and his men should depart
in safety with their baggage.
THE ENGLISH MAKE MANY CONQUESTS.
In this year the duke of Bedford had the castle of Torcy besieged, which was the best built and strongest in all that part of the country. The command of the besieging army was given to the bastard of Clarence, who by his cannon and other engines, which he kept continually playing against it, greatly damaged the walls. At the end of six months, the besieged seeing no hope of relief, and finding that their provision began to fail, entered into a treaty with the bastard of Clarence for their surrender, on condition that some of the principal inhabitants might depart whither they pleased with their effects; and that from ten to twelve others, who had formerly been of the English party, but who had even aided the French to win the castle, should remain at their pleasure. These were very cruelly put to death, and the castle was then demolished and razed to the ground.
the month of January of this year, sir Thomas Kiriel, an Englishman, with four
hundred combatants, most part of whom were his countrymen, marched from Gournay
in Normandy, where they had been in garrison, passing by Beauvais toward Beauv
oisis and the county of Clermont. He committed much mischief in those parts,
seized many cattle, especially horses, and made several prisoners. He advanced
even to the suburbs of Clermont, and then set out on his return to his garrison.
The count de Clermont was then at Beauvais, and hearing of this enterprise of
sir Thomas, quickly collected from all the neighbouring garrisons attached to
king Charles eight hundred or more combatants. To these were added a multitude
of peasants, as well from Beauvais as from the adjacent parts, and all of them
hastened to meet and fight the English. Sir Thomas had heard from his scouts of
their coming, and had drawn up his men in battle-array, about a league off
Beauvais, to wait for them. They were on foot, having a wood on their rear, and
sharp stakes in front to prevent the horse from charging without great danger to
themselves. The French, nevertheless, began the attack, and very severe it was
on both sides, but, as they were on horseback, were soon repulsed by the arrows
of the archers, and thrown into confusion, the English then, seizing their
opportunity, rushed on them with such courage that the enemy were defeated, very
many being slain, and upwards of a hundred of these peasants made prisoners.
They gained the field of battle, for the horsemen had retreated, very melancholy
at their loss, to Beauvais. Sir
Thomas, rejoiced at his victory, carried his prisoners and plunder safe to his
garrison of Gournay.
earl of Suffolk, about this time, laid siege to the castle of Aumale, of which
the lord de Rambures was governor, having under him six-score combatants.
The castle was surrounded on all sides; and at the end of twenty-four days it
was constrained to surrender, on condition that the lord de Rambures and his men
should have their lives spared, with the exception of about thirty who were
hanged; because they had formerly taken oaths of fidelity to the English, and
had been of their party. Soon afterward the lord de Rambures was carried to
England, where lie remained prisoner five or six years before he could obtain
his liberty. The castle was revictualled and regarrisoned. Thus did the English
regain, this year, many strong places which the French had won, with scarcely
any loss of men.
ESTIENNE DE VIGNOLLES, SURNAMED LA HIRE, SURPRISES AND TAKES THE TOWN OF
LOUVIERS, IN NORMANDY.
In these days Estienne de Vignolles, surnamed La Hire, took the town of Louviers, in Normandy, by surprise, having entered it with scaling-ladders. He had with him from five to six hundred men, who found therein such plenty that they were greatly enriched. On their entrance about thirty townsmen, English, and others, were killed. After the capture the majority of the inhabitants took the oaths of allegiance, to whom La Hire restored their houses and the greater part of their effects; the rest saved themselves as well as they could, leaving their wealth behind them. La Hire and his companions soon made a severe warfare on the districts around, and at times even advanced as far as Rouen. The poor people were much harassed by them, to the great vexation of the English, for at the time they could not assist them by reason of the more weighty matters they had on band.
CHAPTER 80: THE LORD DE CREVECOEUR AND SIR ROBERT DE SAVEUSES ARE
ATTACKED BY THE FRENCH ON THEIR MARCH TO CLERMONT IN THE BEAUVOISIS.
In the month of February of this
year, the lord de Crevecoeur, governor of Clermont in Beauvoisis, set out from
Amiens to go thither, accompanied by sir Robert de Saveuses and about eight
score combatants, as an escort to carts and cars laden with provision for Lent,
and other matters. Having passed St. Just, near to St. Remy en l'aire, they were
watched by the French, who knew of their coming, and instantly attacked. The
leaders of the French were sir Theolde Valpergliue, Sir Regnault de Fontaines,
Sir Louis de Vaucourt, and others, having a much superior force to the enemy.
Notwithstanding this, the lords de Crevecoeur and Saveuses dismounted
with their men the greater part of whom were archers, and defended themselves
valiantly for the space of four hours or more, during which many men and horses
were killed and severely wounded on both sides. At length, the French, seeing
their loss, and that they could not conquer the enemy, returned to their
garrisons, and the lord de Crevecoeur and Sir Robert de Saveuses coutinued their
march to Clermont, where they remained until the ensuing year, waiting for the
coming of the duke of Burgundy.
CHAPTER 81: FIVE FRENCHMEN COMBAT FIVE BURGUNDIANS AT ARRAS, AND OTHER
On the 20th of February,
in this same year, a combat took place in the great marketplace at Arras, in the
presence of the duke of Burgundy, as judge of the field, between five Frenchmen,
of the party of king Charles, and five Burgundians, who had challenged each
other to break a certain number of lances. The French knights were sir Theolde
de Valperghue, Poton de Saintrailles, Sir Philip d'Abrecy, sir William de Bes,
and l’Estandart de Nully; the
Burgundians were sir Simon de Lalain, the lord de Chargny, Sir John de Vaulde,
Sir Nicolle de Menton, and Philibert de Menton.
tournament lasted five days; and a large spot was enclosed for the purpose,
covered with sand, and the lists constructed with wood, with a division so that
the horses of the two knights could not run against each other. The first day,
sir Simon de Lalain and Sir Theolde de Valperghue performed gallantly against
each other; but toward the end sir Theolde and his horse were struck to the
ground. In like manner were the ensuing days employed, and very many lances were
broken. The lord de Chargny, however, at the thirteenth course against sir
Philibert d'Abrecy, struck off the vizor of his helmet, and drove the lance into
his face, so that he was instantly carried to his lodgings in the utmost danger.
On the last day, sir l’Estandart de Nully was hit exactly in the same manner,
by the same Philibert de Menton, and, like the other, was conducted to his
lodgings in such great pain, that he could with difficulty sit his horse: he had
behaved with much gallantry, and had broken several lances against his
French were served with lances by an expert and active man-at-arms
called Alardin de Mousay, and most of the Burgundians by Sir John de Luxembourg.
Each.day the duke came to the seat prepared for him, grandly attended by
his chivalry, and nobly dressed. When this tournament was over, and the French
had been well entertained, and presented with handsome gifts by the duke, they
departed from the town of Arras for Compiegne, very disconsolate that they had
been so unsuccessful. They left the two wounded knights behind, to be attended
by the duke's surgeons, who in the end cured them.
these days the French on the borders of Beauvoisis, on the river Oise, made
daily excursions against those of the Burgundy party, who returned the
compliment, although a truce had been sworn to last until the ensuing Easter;
and these continual excursions caused the villages and country to be nearly
deserted. Duke Philip of Burgundy summoned a large body of
men-at-arms to meet him at Peronne, where he and his duchess
solemnised the feast of Easter. This done, he marched them to Mondidier, where
he remained some days.
these tribulations, the town and castle of Melun surrendered to king Charles.
CHAPTER 82: THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY QUARTERS HIS ARMY AT GOURNAY-SUR-ARONDE.
[A. D. 1430.]
At the commencement of this
year, the duke of Burgundy marched his army from Mondidier, and fixed his
quarters at Gournay-sur-Aronde, in front of the castle, which belonged to
Charles de Bourbon count de Clermont, his brother-in-law. He summoned Tristan de
Maguillers, the governor, to surrender, or he would storm it. Tristan, seeing
lie could no way hold out against the duke's forces, concluded a treaty, by
which he engaged to yield it up on the first day of next August, if he was not
before relieved by king Charles or his party: he also promised, that neither he
himself nor his garrison would, during that time, make war on any of the duke's
partisans, and by this means Tristan remained in peace. This compromise had been
hastily concluded, because the duke and sir John de Luxembourg had received
intelligence to be depended upon, that the damoiseau de Commercy, Yvon du Puys,
and other captains, with a very large force, had besieged the castle of Montagu.
Commercy, to whom this castle belonged, had marched thither secretly a great
number of combatants, with bombards, veuglaires, and other warlike engines,
intending, by an unexpected and sharp assault, to recover the place ; but it was
well defended by those whom Sir John de Luxembourg had placed therein. The
principal leaders of the garrison were two notable men-at-arms, one of whom was
an Englishman, and the other Georges de la Croix. They were frequently summoned
to surrender, but would not listen to the summons, for they had not a doubt but
that they should be very shortly succoured. At length the besiegers, having
learnt that the duke of Burgundy was marching against them, and that they must
stand the chance of a battle, were panic-struck, and so great was their fear,
that they marched away about midnight for their own garrisons, leaving their
cannon, bombards, and all their stores behind. Information of this was instantly
dispatched to the duke and sir John de Luxembourg, who made all diligence to
attack them, and the duke marched his whole army to Noyon.
these days sir John de Luxembourg advanced against Beauvais, and on the
countries of the enemy, particularly against sir Louis de Vaucourt and his men,
who had remained there for a considerable time during the winter, and set fire
to a castle which they had repaired. The enemy retired within the town of
Beauvais; and sir John encamped before the castle of Prouveulieu, which some
Englishmen had refortified, and, by their excursions from thence, frequently
oppressed the town of Mondidier, and the territories of the duke of Burgundy.
They were soon forced to submit to sir John, who had the greater part executed
and the rest sent to different prisons: having done this, he returned to the
duke of Burgundy at Noyon.
CHAPTER 83: THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY LAYS SIEGE TO THE CASTLE OF
When the duke of Burgundy
had remained for about eight days in Noyon, lie departed, to lay siege to the
castle of Choisy Sur Oise, in which was Louis de Flavy, holding it for sir
William de Flavy. The duke's engines did so much mischief to the walls of the
castle that the garrison capitulated, on being allowed to march away with their
baggage in safety. So soon as they had quitted the castle, it was demolished and
razed to the ground. The duke built a bridge over the Oise, to enable himself
and his army to cross toward Compiegne on the side of Mondidier. During this
time the lord de Saveuses and John de Brimeu had been appointed to guard the
suburbs of Noyon, with their men, and those of the lord Montgomery and of other
English captains quartered at Pont l'Eveque to prevent the garrison of Compiagne
from cutting off the supplies from the duke's army.
happened on a certain day, that those in Compiegne, namely, Joan the Maid, Sir
James de Chabannes, Sir Theolde de Valperghue, Sir Regnault de Fontaines, Poton
de Saintrailles, and others of the French captains, accompanied by about two
thousand combatants, came to Pont l'Eveque between daybreak and sunrise, and
attacked the quarters of the English with great courage. A sharp conflict took
place; and the lord de Saveuses with John de Brimeu, with their men, hastened to
their support, which renewed the vigour of the English; they together repulsed
the French, who had made good progress in their quarters. About thirty were
killed on each side, and the French retreated to Compiegne, whence they had
come. The English from that day strengthened their position on all sides, to
avoid a similar attack. Shortly afterward, John de Brimeu, going to the duke of
Burgundy with about one hundred combatants, was suddenly attacked by a party of
French in the forest of Crespy in the Valois, who had come from Attichy for this
purpose, and to seek adventures, and without much defence made prisoner. The
reason of his being thus taken was because his men followed in a file, and were
unable to form into battle-array until the attack had commenced. He was put into
the hands of Poton de Saintrailles, who, in the end, gave him his liberty on
paying a heavy ransom.
the duke of Burgundy had demolished the castle of Choisy, he quartered himself
in the fortress of Coudun, within a league of Compiegne, and Sir John de
Luxembourg was lodged in Claroi. Sir Baudo de Noielle was ordered to post
himself with a certain number of men-at-arms on the causeway of Marigny, and the
lord Montgomery and his men were quartered along the meadows of La Venette. The
duke was joined by some reinforcements from his different countries, having the
intention to besiege the town of Compiegne, and reduce it to the obedience of
king Henry of England.
CHAPTER 84: JOAN THE MAID OVERTHROWS FRANQUET D'ARRAS AND HAS HIS HEAD
At the beginning of the month of
May, a valiant man-at-arms named Franquet of Arras, attached to the duke of
Burgundy, was overthrown and taken. He had made an excursion with about three
hundred combatants toward Lagny Sur Marne, but, on his return, was met by Joan
the Maid and four hundred French. Franquet and his men attacked them valiantly
several times, and, by means of his archers whom he had dismounted, made so
vigorous a resistance that the Maid, finding they gained nothing, sent hastily
for succours from the garrisons of Lagny and other castles under the dominion of
king Charles. They came in great numbers with culverines, crossbows, and other
warlike instruments, so that in the end the Burgundians, after doing great
mischief to the enemy's cavalry, were conquered, and the better part of them put
to the sword. The Maid even caused Franquet to be beheaded, whose death was
exceedingly lamented by his party, for he was a man of most valiant conduct.
CHAPTER 85: RENE DUKE OF BAR
LAYS SIEGE TO CHAPPES, NEAR TO TROVES
About this period the duke of
Bar, called Rene of Sicily, collected from his duchies of Lorraine and Bar, and
the borders of Germany, a considerable force of men-at-arms, commanded by that
prudent and valiant knight the lord de Barbasan, who, as has been said, was
detained by the English for a long time prisoner. The duke's troops might amount
to three or four thousand combatants; and he led them to besiege the town of
Cliappes, three leagues from Troyes, in which were the lord d'Aumont, his
brother and many warriors, who diligently applied themselves to its defence.
They also sent to the lords of Burgundy, to entreat that they would come to
their aid in this time of need. In consequence, sir Anthony de Toulongeon
marshal of Burgundy, the count de Joigny, Sir Anthony and Sir John du Vergy, the
lord de Jonvelle, the lord de Chastellux, le veau de Bar, and in general the
greater part of the Burgundian nobles, to the number of four thousand
combatants, assembled, and advanced toward the quarters of the duke of Bar, to
offer him battle.
duke, knowing of their coming, was drawn up ready to receive them, when the
Burgundians were soon thrown into disorder, and returned to their own country.
About sixty were killed or taken: of the latter number were the., lord de Plansi
and Charles de Rochefort. The lord d'Aumore was also made prisoner, with several
of his men, when sallying out of the town to support his friends. His brother
was likewise taken, and lie was forced to deliver up the castle to the duke of
Bar, who completely destroyed it.
CHAPTER 86: THE MAID IS TAKEN PRISONER BY TIDE BURGUNDIANS BEFORE
During the time that the
duke of Burgundy was quartered at Coudun, and his men-at-arms in the villages
between Coudun and Compiegne, it happened, that about five o'clock in the
afternoon, on Ascension-eve, the Maid, Poton, and other valiant French captains,
having with them from five to six hundred combatants horse and foot, sallied out
of Compiegne by the gate of the bridge leading to Mondidier, with the intent to
attack the post of sir Baudo de Noielle, at the end of the causeway of Marigny.
At this time, sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de Crequi, and eight or ten
gentlemen, but with very few attendants, were with sir Baudo. They had rode
thither to consult with him on the best mode of directing their attacks on
French were very near to Marigny, before the greater part of the men who were
unarmed could prepare themselves; but they soon collected together, and a severe
conflict commenced, during which the cries of “To arms!” were echoed through
all the English and Burgundian quarters. The English, who were encamped on the
meads of Venette, formed themselves into battle-array against the French, and
were near five hundred men. On the other hand, sir John de Luxembourg's men
quartered at Claroi, hastened to the relief of their lord and captain, who was
engaged in the heat of the skirmish, and under whom the most part rallied. In
this encounter the lord de Crequi was dangerously wounded in the face.
some time, the French, perceiving their enemies multiply so fast on them,
retreated toward Compiegne, leaving the Maid, who had remained to cover the
rear, anxious to bring back the men with little loss. But the Burgundians,
knowing that reinforcements were coming to them from all quarters, pursued them
with redoubled vigour, and charged them on the plain. In the conclusion, as I
was told, the Maid was dragged from her horse by an archer, near to whom was the
bastard de Vendome, and to him she surrendered and pledged her faith. He lost no
time in carrying her to Marigny, and put her under a secure guard. With her was
taken Poton the Burgundian, and some others, but in no great number. The French
re-entered Compiegne doleful and vexed at their losses, more especially
for the capture of Joan; while, on the contrary, the English were rejoiced, and
more pleased than if they had taken five hundred other combatants, for they
dreaded no other leader or captain so much as they had hitherto feared the Maid.
duke of Burgundy came soon after from Coudun to the meadows before Compiegne,
where lie drew up his army, together with the English and the troops from their
different quarters, making a handsome appearance, and with shouting and huzzas
expressed their joy at the capture of the Maid. After this, the duke went to the
lodgings where she was confined, and spoke some words to her; but what they were
I do not now recollect, although I was present. The duke and the army returned
to their quarters, leaving the Maid under the guard of sir John de Luxembourg,
who shortly after sent her, under a strong escort, to the castle of Beaulieu,
and thence to that of Beaurevoir, where she remained, as you shall hear, a
prisoner for a long time.
This text is from The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, translated by Thomas Johnes (London, 1840) volume 1.